Fighting cancer: New hope from newborns

One person in the U.S is diagnosed with blood cancer every four minutes.

Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants help patients fight off the disease, but for thousands of people diagnosed with the disease each year, finding a matching donor and surviving without one is almost impossible.

Now, a solution for cancer patients like Jessie Quinn may be coming from a surprising place: cord blood stem cells from the placenta of new born babies.

From making the bed to making music, Jessie Quinn has a shadow ready to learn just about anything her mom can teach her. It was Little Luna who gave her mother the motivation to fight when Jessie was diagnosed with leukemia.

"That was the first thing that went through my head actually. It was, ah, you know, I wanted to be able to see Luna grow up,” says Jessie.

Doctors could not find a bone marrow match for Jessie, so Jessie turned to a new clinical trial for help. Jessie became patient number-one in a clinical trial using cord blood stem cells collected from placentas.

"Now we know that cord blood, which is generally thrown away as medical waste, also contains these blood forming cells,” says Dr. Colleen Delaney, an associate member at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

The stem cells taken from the cord blood are transplanted directly into cancer patients, they replace the diseased blood and bolster the immune system to wage war against the cancer.

According to Dr. Delaney, "Not only do their white blood cells come faster, but they also don't get the same side effects from the chemotherapy."

Most importantly, cord blood stem cells do not have to be a perfect match in order for them to work. Dr. Delaney says her practice has a bank of cord blood cells that can be used on any patient.

Jessie is now in remission; the stem cell transplant she received has given her more time to teach Luna more about life, saying, "I was just glad there was another option."

Dr. Delaney is beginning a new multi-center clinical trial using cord blood stem cells for cancer patients.

BACKGROUND: In 2012, there were 23,540 deaths from leukemia and 47,150 new cases in the United States. Leukemia is cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream. Most normal blood cells develop from cells in the bone marrow, called stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft material in the center of most bones. Stem cells will develop into different kinds of blood cells each with a specific job. White blood cells fight infection. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissue throughout the body. Platelets help form blood clots that control bleeding. These cells are made from stem cells as the body needs them. Most blood cells mature in the bone marrow. Then they will move into the blood vessels. When someone has leukemia, their bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells, called leukemia cells. (Source: www.cancer.gov)

RISK FACTORS: The exact cause of leukemia is unknown. Researchers do know that there are certain risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing the disease. They include:
* Radiation: people exposed to high levels are more likely to get acute myeloid, chronic myeloid, or acute lymphocytic leukemia.
* Smoking: cigarettes increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.
* Chemotherapy: cancer patients treated with certain types of drugs sometimes can get acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia.
* Benzene: exposure to benzene (found in chemicals, cigarette smoke, and gasoline) in the workplace can cause acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid or acute lymphocytic leukemia.
* Inherited Diseases: Down syndrome, blood disorders, Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, family history of leukemia, and other inherited diseases increase the risk of developing acute leukemia. (Source: www.cancer.gov)

TREATMENT: Treatment will depend on the type of leukemia, the patient's age, and whether leukemia cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment options can include: watchful waiting, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplant. Many leukemia patients use chemotherapy. It uses drugs to destroy leukemia cells. Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia may receive drugs called targeted therapy. Imatinib tablets were the first targeted therapy approved for chronic myeloid leukemia, but there are now others. Biological therapy is the treatment that improves the body's natural defenses against the disease. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill leukemia cells. Stem cell transplant allows the patient to be treated with high doses of drugs, radiation, or both. After the patient receives the high dose of medications, the leukemia cells and normal blood cells in the bone marrow are destroyed. Then the patient receives healthy stem cells through a large vein, similar to a blood transfusion. New blood cells will develop from the transplanted stem cells. (Source: www.cancer.gov)

NEW ADVANCES: A different treatment option that is still in clinical trials is the use of cord blood stem cells from the placentas of newborn babies. Umbilical cord blood, like bone marrow, is a rich source of stem cells for transplantation. The cord blood for transplantation is collected from the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is born. The cells used in transplants can come from marrow, peripheral blood, and the umbilical cord blood. The first successful cord blood stem cell transplant was done in 1988 in Paris, France on a boy with Fanconi anemia, a fatal and genetic type of anemia. It has also been given successfully to patients with over 70 diseases, including acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelogenous leukemia, juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, thalassemia, neuroblastoma, severe combined immune deficiency, Aldrich syndrome, and severe aplastic anemia. The umbilical cord is routinely discarded after a baby is delivered unless the parents choose to do otherwise. For certain patients, there are advantages to using donor cord blood stem cells instead of donor peripheral blood or donor marrow stem cells, including: availability (cord blood is stored in a public bank, tested, and frozen); Human Leukocyte Antigen Matching does not have to be as close a match as a bone marrow or peripheral blood transplants; fewer patients get Graft-Versus-Host Disease; diversity; and less risk of obtaining an infectious disease. (Source: www.lls.org)

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FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT:

Colleen Delaney, MD
Associate Member
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
(206) 667-1385
sdelaney@fhcrc.org

If this story or any other Ivanhoe story has impacted your life or prompted you or someone you know to seek or change treatments, please let us know by contacting Andrew McIntosh at amcintosh@ivanhoe.com.


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