The "Reverse" Vaccine: Stopping Type One Diabetes

Three-million Americans live with type one diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes. These patients need to inject themselves with insulin every day in order to stay alive.

Now, for the first time a promising therapy may stop the disease in its tracks.

Every second of every day Spike Loy has to think about his blood sugar. Spike was diagnosed with type one diabetes when he was seven.

"My mom tested me for years," says Spike Loy.

Now, he tests himself up to 10 times a day and has to worry about potential complications like nerve damage, blindness, and stroke. But Stanford researchers are studying a vaccine that could reverse the disease.

"We saw some very exciting outcome measures," explains Larry Steinman, MD, a Professor of Pediatrics and Neurology at Stanford University.

In type one diabetes the immune system stops beta cells from making insulin. The vaccine uses DNA to attract and attack the bad cells that destroy insulin, while leaving the good beta cells alone.

"We bait the bad cells, kill them, and leave the beta cells in the pancreas to survive and function as insulin-producing cells," explains Dr. Steinman.

Researchers gave 80 patients the vaccine once a week for 12 weeks. Those who received it had more beta cells. It essentially reversed the effects of the disease. Spike says it's a step closer to what he wants most, a cure.

The doctor says future studies of the vaccine will test whether patients can reduce, or maybe even eliminate, their daily insulin doses. For this study there were not any significant side effects experienced.

To date no DNA vaccine has ever been approved for human use. This could be the first one.


TOPIC: The "Reverse" Vaccine: Stopping Type One Diabetes
REPORT: MB # 3677

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes when the body is not producing enough insulin. This disease is commonly diagnosed to children and young adults, previously named juvenile diabetes. Type I diabetes involves constant pricking to measure blood sugar levels and continuously injecting yourself with insulin because the pancreas is not producing enough. There is no cure for type I or type II diabetes yet, but there are ways to keep healthy and stable. (Source:

SYMPTOMS: Most symptoms for type I diabetes consists of:
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Unusual hunger
* Increased thirst and urinating often

TREATMENT: Because there is not a cure for diabetes, patients need to take insulin every day for the rest of their lives. Commonly, insulin is administered through a pump, needle or pen depending on the patient. A few ways that patients can help with type I diabetes is to maintain a healthy diet, exercise often and monitor blood sugar regularly. Doctors suggest that patients keep blood sugar levels between 80 and 120 before meals during the day and 100 and 140 before bed.

NEW TREATMENT: A new vaccine is being studied to potentially reverse type I diabetes with just a simple shot. This vaccine manipulates bad cells that ruin insulin with DNA while preserving the good cells in the pancreas. This will reduce or get rid of patients' complications with the disease and will free individuals of injecting themselves with insulin. This treatment is still being researched and will be the first DNA vaccine on the market. (Source:


Larry Steinman, MD
Professor of Pediatrics and Neurology
Stanford University

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